D.2.5 Round Robin Dispatching
[This subclause defines the task dispatching policy Round_Robin_Within_Priorities
and the package Round_Robin.]
The following language-defined library package exists:
with Nonblocking, Global => in out synchronized is
Default_Quantum : constant
Set_Quantum (Pri : in
Quantum : in
Set_Quantum (Low, High : in
Quantum : in
Actual_Quantum (Pri : System.Priority)
Is_Round_Robin (Pri : System.Priority) return
Implementation defined: The value of
Default_Quantum in Dispatching.Round_Robin.
When task dispatching policy Round_Robin_Within_Priorities is the single
policy in effect for a partition, each task with priority in the range
of System.Interrupt_Priority is dispatched according to policy FIFO_Within_Priorities.
The procedures Set_Quantum set the required Quantum value for a single
priority level Pri or a range of priority levels Low .. High. If no quantum
is set for a Round Robin priority level, Default_Quantum is used.
The function Actual_Quantum returns the actual quantum used by the implementation
for the priority level Pri.
The function Is_Round_Robin returns True if priority Pri is covered by
task dispatching policy Round_Robin_Within_Priorities; otherwise, it
A call of Actual_Quantum or Set_Quantum raises exception Dispatching.Dispatching_Policy_Error
if a predefined policy other than Round_Robin_Within_Priorities applies
to the specified priority or any of the priorities in the specified range.
For Round_Robin_Within_Priorities, the dispatching rules for FIFO_Within_Priorities
apply with the following additional rules:
When a task is added or moved to the tail of the
ready queue for its base priority, it has an execution time budget equal
to the quantum for that priority level. This will also occur when a blocked
task becomes executable again.
When a task is preempted (by a higher priority
task) and is added to the head of the ready queue for its priority level,
it retains its remaining budget.
While a task is executing, its budget is decreased
by the amount of execution time it uses. The accuracy of this accounting
is the same as that for execution time clocks (see D.14
Ramification: Note that this happens
even when the task is executing at a higher, inherited priority, and
even if that higher priority is dispatched by a different policy than
When a task has exhausted its budget and is without
an inherited priority (and is not executing within a protected operation),
it is moved to the tail of the ready queue for its priority level. This
is a task dispatching point.
Ramification: In this case, it will be
given a budget as described in the first bullet.
The rules for FIFO_Within_Priority (to which
these bullets are added) say that a task that has its base priority set
to a Round Robin priority is moved to the tail of the ready queue for
its new priority level, and then will be given a budget as described
in the first bullet. That happens whether or not the task's original
base priority was a Round Robin priority.
An implementation shall allow, for a single partition, both the task
dispatching policy to be specified as Round_Robin_Within_Priorities and
also the locking policy (see D.3
) to be specified
Reason: This is the preferred combination
of the Round_Robin_Within_Priorities policy with a locking policy, and
we want that combination to be portable.
An implementation shall document the quantum values supported.
Documentation Requirement: The quantum
values supported for round robin dispatching.
An implementation shall document the accuracy with which it detects the
exhaustion of the budget of a task.
Documentation Requirement: The accuracy
of the detection of the exhaustion of the budget of a task for round
Due to implementation constraints, the quantum value returned by Actual_Quantum
might not be identical to that set with Set_Quantum.
A task that executes continuously with an inherited priority will not
be subject to round robin dispatching.
Extensions to Ada 95
Policy Round_Robin_Within_Priorities and package
Dispatching.Round_Robin are new.
Ada 2005 and 2012 Editions sponsored in part by Ada-Europe